Ethiopia: video of Tigray massacre lifts lid on ‘war without photos’

Eritrea Ethiopia Tigray
Screengrab of the video, filmed in the village of Mai Harmaz in Tigray, early January 2021.
Screengrab of the video, filmed in the village of Mai Harmaz in Tigray, early January 2021. © France 24 screengrab

Men in uniform slaughtered dozens of people in a small village in the Tigray region of Ethiopia on January 5, 2021, right in the midst of the usually festive Orthodox Christmas season. Thirty bodies are seen on the ground in a video that has been circulating online despite the current internet blackout in the Tigray region, which has been engulfed in a bloody conflict between the army and rebels. The soldier filming the video points the camera at an injured person, saying to a comrade, “You should have finished off the survivors!” Our team was able to verify this video.

WARNING: Readers may find the contents of this article disturbing

The Tigray region, located in the far north of Ethiopia, has been engulfed in a bloody struggle between the central government and the regional government, who want more representation and political power for the Tigray minority within government.

Last November, this conflict escalated into an outright war after highly anticipated elections were delayed. This led to a humanitarian catastrophe. Shelling in residential areas saw large numbers of people being displaced. The chaos also led to famine.

There was also a ratcheting up of tensions when thousands of Eritrean soldiers joined the side of the Ethiopian central government against the Tigray regional government. This is the result of a complex history. Eritrea and Ethiopia were at war for 30 years. During this time of war, Ethiopia was led by a government where the Tigrayan minority and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front had an enormous amount of political power. However, they lost power in 2018 as Abiy Ahmed was appointed prime minister.

In early February, a video of 4’04” was broadcast on social media— initially posted as a series of one minute excerpts. Those who shared the shocking footage said it was proof that Ethiopian soldiers had massacred civilians in Debre Abay, a district in central Tigray.

News site Tghat, which is run by a group of Tigrayan activists living abroad, reported on January 12 that a massacre had taken place in this location. In early February, the site shared excerpts from the video. Following in the footsteps of Twitter users who had started to investigate the origins of the video, British daily The Telegraph published an article about it on February 19.

Our team decided to only publish blurred screengrabs of the video, due to the extremely violent content.

Where?

The footage shows about 30 bodies on the ground on the outskirts of a village.

We examined the location of the buildings, trails and trees in the video, as well as the mountains on the horizon, and compared this with satellite images and topographical information available on Google Earth Pro. In this way, we were able to determine the exact location where the video was filmed. 

It was filmed in a village called Mai Harmaz in the Debre Abay region, which is known for a famous monastery, located about two kilometres from the village.

En haut, un montage de différentes captures d’écran de la vidéo, au moment où le cameraman filme en direction du village et, en bas, un montage montrant le moment où il filme la sortie du village (direction sud-ouest). On voit les mêmes éléments entourés sur une image satellite capturée aux coordonnées suivantes : 13.820976, 38.125441.
En haut, un montage de différentes captures d’écran de la vidéo, au moment où le cameraman filme en direction du village et, en bas, un montage montrant le moment où il filme la sortie du village (direction sud-ouest). On voit les mêmes éléments entourés sur une image satellite capturée aux coordonnées suivantes : 13.820976, 38.125441. © Google Earth Pro/France 24
En bas, le profil montagneux visible dans la vidéo dans la direction sud-ouest (accentué par effet de contraste par notre rédaction) et, en haut, celui généré par les données topographiques dans Google Earth Pro.
En bas, le profil montagneux visible dans la vidéo dans la direction sud-ouest (accentué par effet de contraste par notre rédaction) et, en haut, celui généré par les données topographiques dans Google Earth Pro. © Google Earth Pro/France 24

Then, we mapped the location of each of the bodies onto a satellite image. We counted 30 lifeless bodies, all dressed in civilian clothes. There is a large amount of blood on some of the victims, suggesting that they were wounded. In some places, the victims have lost so much blood that the ground beneath them has changed from ocre to black. At least two people, lying down and probably wounded, are alive and react to the cameraman as he films.

Chaque point rouge indique la localisation d’un corps visible dans la vidéo et deux points jaunes indiquent des personnes encore vivantes au moment de la prise de vue.
Chaque point rouge indique la localisation d’un corps visible dans la vidéo et deux points jaunes indiquent des personnes encore vivantes au moment de la prise de vue. © Image satellite datée du 19 février 2021, fournie par Planet Labs

‘You should have finished off the survivors!’

At the start of the video, you can see two lifeless bodies on a dirt road. The man filming starts speaking in Amharic, probably to someone who isn’t visible.

“Hey, you should have finished off the survivors!” he says.

According to several Amharic speakers, the man has a strong accent from southern Ethiopia. The Telegraph also reported this information. A boy lying on the ground responds in Tigrinya, the language spoken in the northern region.

Then the cameraman walks towards two men lying on the ground. One, who seems to be young, reacts to the cameraman and they begin to speak:

L'homme au sol est vivant et tente de répondre aux questions de celui qui filme. Ils ne se comprennent pas car ils parlent deux langues différentes, l'un le tigrigna et l'autre l'amharique.
L’homme au sol est vivant et tente de répondre aux questions de celui qui filme. Ils ne se comprennent pas car ils parlent deux langues différentes, l’un le tigrigna et l’autre l’amharique.© France 24

Soldier (in Amharic): “Why were you here in the first place?”

Kid on ground (in Tigrinya): “I live here.”

Soldier: “Who brought you here? Did he (dead man lying beside him) do it?”

(Soldier doesn’t speak Tigrinya and is unable to understand the kid).

Soldier: “You don’t understand Amharic?”

Kid on ground (in Tigrinya): “I live by those homes over there (gesturing).”

Soldier, frustrated by kid’s inability to speak Amharic: “Keep talking, I’ll f*ck your mother. Keep talking, you son of a b*tch.”

Impossible de savoir si cet homme est celui avec qui le caméraman vient de discuter ou non. Il marche en boitant.
Impossible de savoir si cet homme est celui avec qui le caméraman vient de discuter ou non. Il marche en boitant. © France 24

A minute after this exchange with the young man on the ground, the cameraman films another man who is limping away from the area.

“Why don’t we kill (him)?” the soldier asks.

In the background, women and men can be heard pleading in a mixture of Tigrinya and Amharic: “Please, in your mother’s name!”

“Leave it,” the soldier filming finally says. “Let him go. We’ve hit him already. He should have been killed at the beginning. Enough, let him go, he survived.”

Who? 

Several men wearing military fatigues appear throughout the video. They are all wearing camouflage uniforms and sand-coloured boots. Some also wear a hat of the same colour.  It’s not clear if the man filming the video is wearing a uniform, but his conversations with the other soldiers make it appear as if he is part of the same group.

Plusieurs uniformes et bottes comme celles-ci sont visibles tout au long de la vidéo.
Plusieurs uniformes et bottes comme celles-ci sont visibles tout au long de la vidéo. © France 24

One of the men is carrying a walkie-talkie with a long antenna. Ethiopian soldiers participating in active combat have been photographed using this kind of equipment in the past, as seen in this photo taken by Agence France Presse in November. Another person carries a walkie-talkie with a short antenna.

À gauche, une capture d'écran de la vidéo où l'on voit un homme tenir un talkie-walkie à longue antenne et, à droite, la photo AFP d'un soldat éthiopien tenant un appareil du même type, publiée le 25 novembre 2020.
À gauche, une capture d’écran de la vidéo où l’on voit un homme tenir un talkie-walkie à longue antenne et, à droite, la photo AFP d’un soldat éthiopien tenant un appareil du même type, publiée le 25 novembre 2020. © France 24/AFP

In the final seconds of the video, you can see a man armed with an assault rifle. The quality of the image, however, isn’t strong enough to identify the model.

A zoomed-in screenshot of the moment in the video where we see a man with a gun.
A zoomed-in screenshot of the moment in the video where we see a man with a gun. © France 24

After pointing his lens at the bodies of 30 people, the man filming concludes his video by saying,  “Look how many were hit. It’s all on video.”

The soldiers are clearly well-equipped and wear standardised uniforms. This, as well as the fact that the group is speaking Amharic, makes it much more likely that they are affiliated with the Ethiopian Army and not the Tigrayan rebels. The fact that they are speaking Amharic also rules out the possibility that they are some of the Eritrean soldiers who have recently joined forces with the Ethiopians.

However, there are no flags or badges that would enable us to identify their battalion. It isn’t clear if these men are part of the regular army or an affiliated group like the paramilitary police or a militia.

When?

Several local sources said that Ethiopian soldiers had fired at villagers on January 5, 2021, several days before the Ethiopian Christmas celebrations held on January 7. Because there are at least two survivors shown in the video, it is likely that it was filmed the day of the massacre.

We can confirm that this footage was shot some time after 2018. That’s because a building under construction that appears in the video doesn’t appear in satellite images before that year. The length and orientation of the shadows projected by the men and buildings in the video correspond with a late afternoon in winter, according to the website SunCalc.

À gauche, une capture d'écran de la vidéo où l'on voit un bâtiment en cours de construction et, à droite, une image satellite de l'endroit datée de 2018 sur laquelle ce bâtiment est absent.
À gauche, une capture d’écran de la vidéo où l’on voit un bâtiment en cours de construction et, à droite, une image satellite de l’endroit datée de 2018 sur laquelle ce bâtiment est absent. © Google Earth Pro/France 24

We found no instance of this video online before February 2021.

In response to The Telegraph, the Ethiopian ambassador in London Teferi Melesse Desta said that the video had “been taken out of context” and that the Ethiopian Army “does the maximum […] to avoid civilian casualties and to protect citizens”.

Our team requested an interview with both the ministry of defence and the office of the prime minister of Ethiopia to get more information. We will update this page if they respond to our requests.

‘A war without photos’

The footage of the Debre Abay massacre has lifted the veil of what the media call “a war without photos”. The government of Abiy Ahmed prevented journalists and NGOs from entering Tigray for several months to avoid any “interference”, while authorities claimed that international media outlets hadn’t been able to cover the situation due to “land and sea transport disruption”. This ban was partially lifted in late February for several media outlets, including FRANCE 24. Starting in early 2021, some images of the war in Tigray have gotten out, as well as the accounts of people on the ground. Many NGOs have been worried by what they are hearing.

The Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide announced in early February that she had seen reports of serious human rights violations and abuses by the parties involved in the war in the Tigray region and their allies, including extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, looting of property, mass executions and impeded humanitarian access.

Videos documenting suspected war crimes are being shared online with increasing frequency and are now an important source for international tribunals, including the International Criminal Court.

“Considering their growing use, institutions are working to standardise how they are collected and investigated,” says Aurélie Aumaître, a lawyer who specialises in crimes against humanity and war crimes at the Paris Judicial Tribunal. In December 2020, the University of Berkeley published a guide for lawyers who want to use these videos as proof during a trial, in partnership with the United Nations.

 

 

 

1 thought on “Ethiopia: video of Tigray massacre lifts lid on ‘war without photos’

  1. ዘለዓለማዊ ክብርን ሞገስን ንሰማዕታትና፥ ትግራይ ፥ትዕወት ትግራይ ፥ትዕወት ትግራይ ፥ትዕወት says:

    ይሄ ሁሉ ግፍ (መስቃ)እነሱ እነደሚሉት ወያነ ዪሂን ሰርቶ ነበር ኣማራ ፈጅቶ ነበር እያሉ በሚነዙት የዉሸት ትርክት ምክንያት ሳይሆን በትግራዋይ ላይ የነበራቸዉን ጥላቻ፥ቅናትምቀኝነትን አጉልቶ ያሳየ አረመኔያዊ ድርጊት ነዉ፥፥
    የሥልጣን እና የመግዛት፥ሥልጣን ኮርቻ ላይ ተፈናጦ፥ቁጢጥ ብሎ መቆየት ፍላጎት ባላቸዉ ጥቂት ባላባቶች እና መለካዉያን የፈጠሩዋት ኢትዮጵያ የስንቱን ንፁሃን ሕይወት ቀጠፈች፥እስከመቼ ነዉ በዚሁ ሁኔታ ወገኖቻችንን ተጋሩ ብቻ ሳይሆን የፈጣሪ ቤተመቅደስ የሆነዉ የሰዉ ልጅን እድትገድል የምናሰለጥናት????

    አባቶቻችን ኢትዮጵያ እጆቿን ወደ እግዚአብሔር ትዘረጋለች ሲሉ ነግረዉን ነበር፥የዘመናችን መሪዎች ግን አድባራት እና ገዳማት፥ የሀይማኖት ተቅዋማት፥እና መተኪያ የሌላቸዉ ቅርሶቻችንን ለማቃጠል እና ለማዉደም ወደ አረብ ሀገራት እጃቸዉን በመዘርጋት በ ፳፩ ክፍለ ዘመን ሊደረግ የማይታሰብ ግፍ እና በደል አደረሱብን ፥እስካሁኑዋ ደቂቃ ድረስ ይህን የሰይጣናዊ ድርጊት እየፈፀሙ ይታያሉ፥

    የአማራ ልሂቃን በደጉ የእግዚአብሔር ሰዉ ኖህ ዘመን ከነበሩየጥፋት ሰዎች ጋር የሚያመሳስላቸዉ ነገር አገኘሁ፥ይኸዉም እኒህ ሁለቱም የጥፋት አካላት እስከመጨረሻ የጥፋታቸዉ(በጥፋት ዉሃ፥ማየ ዓይህ ፥እስከ ሰጠሙበት ደቂቃ)ጊዜ ድረስ፥ከክፉ ስራቸዉ አልተመለሱም፥፥ በግልፅ ለማስቀመጥ ያክል፥የዘመናችን የጥፋት አካላት(የአማራ ልሂቃን አና መሰሎቻቸዉ(ግብራአበሮቻቸዉ)በሕዝባችን መሞት፥በቤተሰቦቻችን ላይ በሚደርሰዉ ግፍ እና በደል ሲሳለቁ፥በሚገርም ሁኔታ በድፍረት በፗለቲካ ጥገኝነት በጠየቁበት ሀገር ሆነዉ በሕዝባችን መሞት የደስታ በዓል(ፌሽታ)ሲደርጉ፥ካህናተ ሀሰትን አስከትለዉ፥ ሕዝባችን ሞት ሲደግፉ የሕዝባችን ገዳዮች ምስል ይዘዉ በድፍረት ለዓለም ለጦር ወንጀለኞች ያላቸዉን ድጋፍ አሳይተዋል፥

    እንዴት ነዉ አለም እነዚህን ከጎኑዊ አቅፋ ይዛ፥ጥገኝነት ሰጥታ በሌላ በኩል ደግሞ በትግራይም ሆነ በኦሮሚያ፥በተለምዶ የአማራ ክልል ተበሎ በሚጠራዉ ዉስጥ የተገደሉትን ቅማንትና የጉምዝን፥የ ሺናሻን ቅትለት(ዘር ማጥፋት )ወንጀል የሚያወግዙት??

    እንዴት ነዉ ተጋሩ ካሁን በኋላ ከአማራ ጋር የሀሰት ካባ የሆዉን ኢትዮጵያዊነትን በአንድነትእና በተዋሕዶ ስም ተከናንቦ የሚኖረዉ?? ይህን ያነበባቹህ ሁላችሁም ይህን ጥያቄ ለሚጠይቃቹህ ለህሊናቹህ መልስ ስጡትእስቲ???

    በጨዉ ደንደስ በርበሬ ተወደስ እንደተባለ ሁሉ ኢትዮዽያ የራሱዋ ያልሆነን የተዉሶ ና ስርቆት ትግራዋይነት ያላቸዉ ታሪክ ና ቅርሶችን ሀሰት እና ቀረርቶን እንደ ክሬም በመጠቀም የ፫ ሺ ዘመናት ታሪክ ያላትጥንታዊቷ ሀገር እየተባለች ስትሞካሽበት ቆይታለች፥፥እኛም ይህንን የሀሰት ትርክት ለመገንዘብ፥ለ ዓለም ለማጋለጥ ብንዘገይም፥ጥቂት የማይባሉ ተጋሩ፥ከሌሎች ሕብረ ብሔራት ንቁሀን፥የበራላቸዉ፥እዉነተኛዉን ታሪክ ይዘዉ የአማራ ልሂቃን የሸት ትርክትን በመጋፈጥ ተሰዉተዋል ፥
    I could give you a single example – Dekike Estifanos (ገዳማዉያን ምሁራ ተጋሩ ዝኾኑደቂቀ እስጢፋኖስ)were killed mercilessly by amhara elites from Showa. The king falsely claimed that these Godly men are heretics and they do dessiminate a teaching that contradicts the tenets of Orthodox Tewahedo Church and it does deny and denigrade our Saints including St Mary which was not true . The then religious leaders and scholars documented it in a way that pleases the then leaders and our people were presented to the society as if they are atheists and haters of St Mary and Angels , Etc..

    We Tegarus were killed mercilessly for centuries – stonned to death, left to die from hunger which is very brutal than any kind of torture-ከረሀብ ጦር ይሻላል ነዉ ያሉት ቅዱሳን ሐዋርያት፥ወያኔን አሳልፎ እንዲሰጠን ለፍቶ አዳሪ፥ታታሪ ትግራዋይ በረሀብ ይሙት ይሰቃይ፥ለን ምን?? ምን ባደረገ?

    ልጆቹን እናንተን ከደርግ ነፃ ለማዉጣት ሰለ ገበረ?? መሪዎቹን ፗለቲካዊ ሳሆን ተፈጥሮኣዊ፥ሰብኣዊ መብቱን ተጠቅሞ መሪዎቹን ስለመረጠ? You said- we donot allow any country to meddle in our internal affaire? Do you think Tigraway and Tigraweyti will let you the damn to choose his and her leaders? It is our national and tribal affaire too!! Amhara has no right to tell us who gonna be our leader??

    የቅርብ ጊዘ ትውሰታችን ነው በደርግ ዘመን ወታደር ቀና ቢለን ለመየት እንፈራ ነበር ፥ ወፗ(ወታደራዊ ፗሊስ) ነበር የሚባሉት ፥ለሚንድነው የሚታየኝ ቢሎ ነበር የሚማታው በደርግ ዘመን በ መንጊስት መስሪቢያን ለማለፍ አየፈራን ነበር የሚናለፍወ ወያኔ ነው ከዚሁሉ ጉድ ልጆችህናን ና አባቶችን የታደገልህ ክብረቢሰ ናቹህ የኣማራ ልሂቃንም ሆነ የኤትራዉያን ወታደሮችን ወንጀል የምትደግፉ፥ወዲፍርድ መቅረብ አለባቹህ፥

    ስለሆነም ካሁን ወዲያ እኛ ተጋሩ ኢትዮጵያዉያነን ማለትም ሆነ ሌሎችን ተጋሩ ይህን የዉሸት ማንነት እንዲቀበሉ በሀይማኖት ና አንድነት ስም ማግባባት ኢትዮጵያዉያን አንዲሆኑ መገፋፋት ሆን ማሰመን ፤ በእኔ ና አእናንተ ስም በወያኔ ምክንያት ሳይሆን ትግራዋይነት እንደ ትልቅ የ ሀገር ክህደት ተቆጥሮ በግፍ የተገደሉ የሕፃናት፥እናቶች፥አባቶችንእህቶች ወንድሞቻችን ክቡር ሕይወት ዋጋ ማሳጣት ነዉ፥

    ካሁን ወዲያ እኛ ተጋሩ ኢትዮጵያዉያነን በማለት ህልመኞች የአሃዳዉያ ምኞትን ለማስፈፀም ከሚሯሯጡ ጋር ጎን መቆም ፥ድጋፍ መስጠት የለብንም፥፥ከላይ እንደጠቀሥኩት ኢትዮጵያዊነት ከአምላክ የተሰጠን አይቀየሬ፥ሃይማኖታዊ ፀጋ ወይንም የአርባ ና የ ሰማንያ ቀን ማንነት አይደለምይልቁንስ በገዢዎች የተሰጠን ማንነት፥ ያለማንነት መገለጫ ወረቀት ተቀባይነቱ አጠራጣሪ የሆነ ማንነት ፥በመጽሐፍ ቅዱስ የምናገኛት ኢትዮጵያ አሁን እየታረድን የምኖርባት ርግምት ከዳተኛዋ አማራዊቷ ኢትዮጵያ ስለመሆኑዋ የሚገልፅ በቂ መጽሐፍ ቅዱሳዊ ማስረጃ አናገኝም:I dont know where these Minilikawuyan(ahadawuyan) find those filthy fraudulent stories??
    ከመቶ ሀምሳ ዓመታት በላይ ወገኖቻች እንደበግ ታርደዋል፥ ተረሽነዋል፥እንደቅርብ ጊዜ ሁሉ የቀድሞ አማራ ነገሥታት በሃይማኖት ሽፋን አባቶቻችንን በድንጋይ ቀጥቅጠዉ ገድለቸዋል:
    መልከ ጥፉን በስም ይደግፉ እንዲሉ ኢትዮዽያ የሃይማኖት፥የቃል ኪዳን ሀገር፥እያሉ ነፍሰ ገዳዮችን፥የያዘች አኬልዳማ፥የወንጀለኞች፥ዋሻ፥መሆኑዋን ለመናገር ያቅታቸዋል፥ Note : Melketefu or ugly is not referring to any humanbeing created in the image and likeness of Almighty God, instead it refers only to the deed and action of anyone who commit crime against humanity.
    እንዴት ነዉ ከዚህ አለም ፗለቲካ የራቁ ሕፃናት፥እናቶች፥አባቶች ካህናት፥ገዳማዉያንመነኮሳት፥መነኮሳይያት፥እየተገደሉ እና እየተደፈሩ፥ኢትዮዽያዊነት ሽፋን አብረን የምንኖረዉ? Why do we have to offer many more Tegarus as a sacrifice to maintain this deadly unity and let so-called ethiopianism survive for years to come? We should stop playing with the fire and with the lives of innocent people in a bid to maintain the power for political elites?
    If any one tells you you should speak up for unity, reconcilation , etc , I am boldly telling you I cannot endanger anyones lives, from my family and community, to keep inhospitable, with unpredictable behavior , antagonstic people, nations together?I cannot see any crime or even a minor fault to let helpless people live alone by avoiding agressive and extremly ethoncentric and tribalistic people from my society????? It is not a phobia, we have seen it for over 150 years.It is the fault of our forefathers who told us poverty is the only and sole enemy of Tegarus ;

    ካሁን በኋላ እነዚህን ከመሰሉ ወንጀሎች ሕዝባችንን ለመታደግ ሰይጣናዉያኑ ምኒሊካዉያንን የማትቀይጥ፥የማትዘንቅ፥ከመርዛቸዉ ና ከንጉሥ ሰለሞን ወረስነዉ ከሚሉት ጥንቆላ መተት የጸዳች ሀገር በቅርቡ እንመሠርታለን

    The US Adminstration should bring those demonstrators to justice. If the US admits that there is an Ethnic cleansing in Tigray and condemns it officially, they should not allow foreigners who support genocide back in Africa to live in their country. Historically governments attrested foreigners who are reportedly participated in genocide and any serious crime in their own country even if they lived in abroad seeking asylum.These should not neglected and should pay the price and face the music for thier evil act. Everyone of you , Tegarus, even if you donot lose any one from your family member, extended family, etc, all those dying in Tigray are simply your closest family members , since they died for being Tigraway. Each of you here in overseas if you were in Tigray you will certainly die or be in the verge of death from hunger. You all knew this fact . We should not ignore other Tegarus just because we are able to talk our family living in ethiopia or Tigray and been told they are safe .
    አንዳንዶች በየዋህነትም ሆነ ግልፅ ባልሆነ ምክንያት ትግራይን እና አማራን እያጣላ ያለዉ ኦሮሞ ነዉ፥ግብፅ ናት፥ይሉናል፥ቀድሞ ሕዉሓትን ከአሜሪካ መንግስት ጋር ለማጋጨት በዉጭ የሚኖሩ የአማራ ልሂቃን የተለያዩ ክሶችን የስም ማጠልሸት አላማ ያላቸዉ የፕሮፗጋንዳ መጣጥፎችን በዘሀበሻ ሚድያ እና በሌሎችም የመገናኛ ብዙሃን ሢያሠራጩ ሲያስነብቡ ቆይተዋል፥አሁን ደግሞ አሃዳዊያኑ የደርግና ምኒሊክ ሥርኣት ናፋቂዎች የሚፈፅሙት በደል ከእኛዉ ጋር እየደረሰባቸዉ ካሉት ኦሮሞዎች ጋር ለማጣላት ሲሸርቡ ይታያሉ፥

    ዘለዓለማዊ ክብርን ሞገስን ንሰማዕታትና፥ ትግራይ ፥ትዕወት ትግራይ ፥ትዕወት ትግራይ ፥ትዕወት

    13March 2021

    Moscow
    Russia

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